What to Do With Form 1099-A?

Form 1099-A reports information about your foreclosure

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Tax time can be intimidating if only because of all those IRS forms you begin receiving in the mail shortly after the first of the year. What do they all mean? What are you supposed to do with them?

Form 1099-A is one of these forms, but hopefully, you'll never have to deal with it. A homeowner typically receives Form 1099-A from his lender after his home has been foreclosed upon. The information on the form is necessary to report the foreclosure on your tax return.

You might receive multiple Forms 1099-A for a single property if you had more than one mortgage or lien against it and more than one lender was involved in the foreclosure. But don't panic. Here's what you need to know. 

Foreclosures and Capital Gains 

The Internal Revenue Service treats a foreclosure just the same as if you had sold your property. You'll have to calculate your capital gain or loss, but unlike with a normal sale, there's no "selling price" in this scenario. This is where Form 1099-A comes into play.

The Information on Form 1099-A

You'll need the selling date and the selling price of the foreclosed property to properly report its "sale" to the IRS, and you'll find this information on Form 1099-A. For the sales price, you'll use either the fair market value of the property or the outstanding loan balance at the time of the foreclosure. The outstanding loan balance is found in Box 2, and the property's fair market value is found in Box 4.

The date of the foreclosure is indicated in Box 1, and this will be used as the date the property was disposed of — that is, the "sale date.”

Taxpayers must also know if the loan was a recourse or a non-recourse loan. The loan was probably a recourse loan if the lender has checked "yes" in Box 5, which asks "Was borrower personally liable for repayment of the debt?"

Do You Have a Gain or a Loss?

Capital gains are reported on Schedule D for homes that were personal residences. The IRS does not allow taxpayers to claim losses on personal residences. Any gain — and yes, a foreclosure can actually result in a gain — can usually be offset by the capital gains exclusion for a main home, so it’s unlikely that a foreclosure will result in any capital gains tax coming due. You must report the 1099-A information anyway. 

Reporting the Foreclosure

Assuming the foreclosed property was your personal residence, you must prepare and file Schedule D with your tax return. Use the date of the foreclosure in Box 1 of the 1099-A as your date of sale, then enter the selling price. This will be either the amount in Box 2 or the amount in Box 4. Which box you'll use will depend on the lending laws of the state in which the property was located, so check with a local tax professional to make sure you select the correct one. 

Calculating Your Gain 

The difference between the Box 2 and Box 4 is not your taxable gain on the foreclosure. You can calculate your gain by comparing the “sales price” you used to your purchase price, which is your cost basis in the property. The purchase price and date can be found on the HUD-1 closing statement you received when you purchased the property.

The difference between the selling price and your cost basis is your gain. Enter this on Schedule D and on line 13 of your Form 1040 tax return.

Investment Properties

Use Form 4797 if the foreclosed property was a rental or an investment. You'll probably need the assistance of a tax professional in this case because there are additional factors to take into consideration, such as recapture of depreciation deductions, passive activity loss carryovers and reporting any final rental income and expenses.

Form 1099-A vs. Form 1099-C

You might receive Form 1099-C instead of Form 1099-A if your lender both foreclosed on the property and canceled any remaining mortgage balance you owed. In this case, the IRS takes the position that you received income from the foreclosure — you received money from the lender to purchase your home and you did not pay all that money back.

But although forgiven debt reported on Schedule 1099-C is usually taxable income, the Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act generally excludes mortgages canceled through foreclosure.

This tax provision technically expired in January 2017, but it still covers foreclosure agreements entered into in 2016 and it's still possible that Congress will renew it. You should qualify if the total of your debts exceeded the total value of your assets immediately before the time of foreclosure. This means that you're "insolvent" and you must only report canceled debt on your tax return to the extent that it exceeds your insolvency — the difference between your debts and your assets. 

NOTE: Tax laws change periodically so you should consult with a tax professional for the most up-to-date advice. The information contained in this article is not intended as tax advice and it is not a substitute for tax advice.   ​