How the Sixth Mass Extinction Affects the U.S. Economy

The Shocking Cost of the Sixth Mass Extinction


 Photo by Peter Cominellis/Getty Images

A mass extinction is when more than 50% of the world’s species die out over a geologically short period. It occurs in less than 200,000 years, a period that’s short when compared to the earth’s 3.5 billion-year history. A a group of organisms that have similar appearance, anatomy, physiology, and genetics.

using carbon dating of ancient rock layers. This technique isn’t very precise, so it’s possible an extinction could have occurred in as little as 150 years.

Whether it’s 150 or 200,000 years, that most species can’t adapt or evolve. As a result, they go extinct.

A mass extinction has only happened five times in the earth’s history. Most scientists agree that the earth is in the process of the sixth mass extinction. In May 2019, the that 1 million species face extinction, many within decades.

The Five Past Mass Extinction Events

The common culprit in all the past five mass extinctions was a change in the carbon dioxide level. When CO2 rose, it caused global warming. When it fell, it cooled the earth.

  1. The Ordovician extinction occurred 440 million years ago. The is that , the southern part of , drifted to Antarctica where it formed glaciers. The white ice reflected heat back into space, chilled the atmosphere, and made sea levels fall. A new theory places the blame on . Others think a from a supernova destroyed the ozone layer and cooled the atmosphere. The cooling oceans killed 85% of all species. The dominant life form was small marine animals and plants. created the oil that we burn today. Coral, algae, fungi, lichen, and mosses .
  1. occurred 365 million years ago, ending the . Trees had become prevalent, but they absorbed carbon dioxide. Normally, dead and decaying plants emit the CO2 back into the atmosphere, but the land was so wet that they became buried in swamps and became coal. The plants also emitted nutrients in the ocean that fed algae. The resulting cooler temperatures and oceans . Life in the oceans was dominant. Sponges, corals, brachiopods, and trilobites went extinct. Animals such as , jawed fish, , and the , survived to this day. Among plants, the ferns and horsetails still exist. The cooler temperatures and falling sea levels allowed the evolution of land animals.
  1. was the largest extinction event in history. It occurred 250 million years ago and lasted only 200,000 years. It ended the . Volcanic eruptions spewed gas that caused acid rain. Greenhouse gases from fires and decaying matter raised the earth’s temperature and depleted oxygen. . At least 90% of species went extinct. The dominant species were . They ruled for 60 million years before going extinct. Phyto-plankton, snails, mollusks, and sea urchins survived the extinction. It ushered in the .
  1. occurred 200 million years ago. The landmass breaking apart. It caused widespread volcanic eruptions . They spewed greenhouse gases that warmed the atmosphere and acidified the oceans. Over 75% of species went extinct. The extinction of other vertebrate species on land allowed dinosaurs to flourish.
  2. occurred 65.5 million years ago. It was caused by a nine-mile wide asteroid that hit the Gulf of Mexico. The heat wave burned most of the forests and created a dust cover that blocked the sun. It ended the . Only animals smaller than a dog survived. survived the deforestation to evolve into modern birds.

    The table below summarizes the five previous mass extinctions.

    Extinction Years Ago Species Killed Cause
    Ordovician 440M 85% Low CO2
    Devonian 365M 87% Low CO2
    Permian 250M 90% High CO2
    Triassic 200M 75% High CO2
    Cretaceous 65.5M 76% Asteroid

    The Sixth Mass Extinction Is Underway

    Over the past 100 years, . The usual rate of extinction is a healthy result of .

    For example, the was six every hundred years before 1600. Between 1800 and 1900, that increased to 48 species. Between 1900 and 2006, another 63 species had gone extinct.

    What about other species? According to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, that have been identified so far. This includes 5,416 mammals, , 29,300 fish, 950,000 insects, and 287,655 plants. that between 150 and 1,500 are going extinct each year. At a minimum, the earth loses a species every three days.

    The Of the species it has assessed, 27% are now threatened with extinction. This includes 40% of amphibians, 31% of sharks and rays, 25% of mammals, and 14% of birds.

    The U.N. report said that 500,000 species no longer have enough land area to support their survival. More than 85% of wetland areas are gone. More than 79 million acres of forest disappeared between 2010 and 2015 alone.

    It has identified the that will probably go extinct in the next few years. These include (with the number remaining) the (20), (30), North Carolina’s red wolf (40), (58), (80), (250), (200), (1,000), (1,500), (2,400), (5,000), (7,300), (8,000), , , and the .

    Another that are facing a very high risk of extinction. They include very familiar animals such as the Atlantic bluefin tuna, the chimpanzee (200,000), and the blue whale (10,000). Another 19 are vulnerable, or facing a high risk of extinction. These include the snow leopard, bigeye tuna, and the black spider monkey.

    Below is a tabular breakdown of the remaining population of the species mentioned above. Scroll down to view the complete dataset.

    Current Population of Endangered Species

    By 2050, up to 50% of all species alive today could be headed towards extinction. That qualifies as a mass extinction event.

    This problem is not just in the developing world or with exotic animals. In the last 100 years, such as the heath hen, Carolina parakeet, and the . In the United States, up to 18% of species are listed as threatened or endangered under the .

    Mass Extinction Threats by Category

    Plants The  has evaluated 12,914 of the 300,000 known plant species. Of those, 68% are threatened with extinction.

    Insects. The world is losing 2.5% of its insects each year. At this rate, . The biggest cause of insect decline is habitat destruction due to farming and deforestation. Contributing factors also include pesticide pollution, invasive species, and climate change.

    . At least one-third of the 6,300 known species of frogs, toads, and salamanders are at risk of extinction. The current extinction rate is at least 25,000 times the background rate. The is decimating those that have survived habitat destruction, pollution, and commercial exploitation. have gone extinct, and another 124 species have lost 90 percent of their numbers. Species that have gone extinct since 1990 include the Costa Rican golden toad, the Panamanian golden frog, the Wyoming toad, and the Australian gastric-brooding frog. it's "the most destructive pathogen ever described by science."

    In the United States, 9% of the 800 species in the country are endangered or threatened with extinction. BirdLife International estimates that 12% of the world’s 9,865 bird species are now considered threatened. Around 2% face an “extremely high risk” of extinction in the wild.

    The American Fisheries Society identified 233 fish species are in danger of extinction. Globally, one out of five species faces extinction. This includes more than a third of sharks and rays. Also at risk are , the , and .

    Around the world, 21% of reptile species are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. These include , the , and .

    More than one in five mammal species are at risk. Even worse, 50% of primate species are facing extinction. gorillas, lemurs, orangutans, and monkeys. Australia's koalas are .

    which share of , have been listed as endangered since 2015.

    The Six Causes of the Sixth Mass Extinction

    The six major causes of this catastrophe are loss of habitat, introduction of foreign species, pandemic diseases, hunting and fishing, pollution, and climate disruption. All of these are man-made. This impact is so prevalent that some scientists are calling this the .

    found that human population density was the biggest cause of local higher extinction rates. When people moved into an area, animal species died off. They were hunted, their habitat was cleared for farming, and they were polluted by waste. Humans also brought along foreign species, such as rats, and pandemic diseases that killed off other species.

    Climate change threatens species worldwide. It is melting glaciers, raising temperatures, making the ocean more acidic, and creating drought. It threatens , koalas, , and . For example, the in 1989. It lived in Costa Rica’s cloud forests that have disappeared due to climate change.

    Climate change is especially harmful to species that live nearer the poles, since temperatures are heating up there the fastest. It also threatens island and shore species, since rising sea levels are flooding their habitats.

    Climate change is so destructive that even our best efforts to limit will result in high extinction rates. In the Paris Climate Accord, countries agreed to to 2 degrees Celsius. Even if they are successful, global extinction rates would still double. If nothing is done to stop climate change, one in every six species would go extinct.

    Economic Impact

    , the increase in the extinction rate has hurt agriculture. Since 2000, 20% of the earth’s vegetated surface has become less productive. In the oceans, a third of fishing areas are being overharvested. Birds that eat crop pests are down by 11%. 

    Bats and birds that pollinate plants are down 17%. In Europe, around a third of bee and butterfly species are declining and almost 10% are threatened with extinction. A estimates that 75% of the world’s food crops rely on pollinators to some extent. If these species go extinct, so does almost 8% of the world’s food species.

    Farming practices are themselves to blame. Most farmland is used for one of only nine crops: sugar cane, corn, rice, wheat, potatoes, soybeans, palm oil, sugar beet, and cassava. One disease could create famine, as the potato blight did in Ireland in 1840.

    These crops rely on pesticides that also kill useful insects. Although organic farming is on the rise, it only accounts for 1% of farmland.

    “Around the world, the library of life that has evolved over billions of years – our biodiversity – is being destroyed, poisoned, polluted, invaded, fragmented, plundered, drained and burned at a rate not seen in human history,” at a on Thursday. “If we were coal miners we’d be up to our waists in dead canaries.”

    For example, bee colony collapse disorder kills worker honeybees that have left the hive to search for food. Between 1947 and 2005, the number of U.S. honeybees fell by over 40%. At this rate, managed honeybees will disappear by 2035. This affects the 100 crop species that make up one-third of the average diet. Bee pollination is worth $15 billion to the U.S. farming industry.

    Neonicotinoid class insecticides weakened the bees' immune system. In September 2018, that, the active ingredient in Roundup, destroys the bees’ immune systems. That makes them, mites, and death. On May 22, 2019, the pesticides.

    As coral reefs die, flood damage from storms to $4 billion a year.

    How It Affects You

    Will man survive the sixth extinction?

    There are a species survive a mass extinction:

    1. A small size doesn’t need as much food.
    2. Fast reproductive cycle so not much time or resources are needed to multiply.
    3. Lots of offspring. More offspring means better chances of surviving and more genetic diversity.
    4. The ability to eat and digest anything. Species that only eat one specific food will disappear when the source does. For example, the only eats bamboo on Lake Alaotra. It is the only primate that lives 100% on water. There are only 2,500 left.
    5. High mobility to enable finding food and more hospitable areas.
    1. The ability to hibernate, live in burrows, or be able to go for long periods without food and water.

    is a help, but it isn’t enough. Most of the species that covered the earth during the past events disappeared because the event’s impact was also widespread.

    Homo sapiens is widespread, mobile, and can eat anything. But it is large and requires a steady diet of water and food. Worst of all, its gestation period is long and the time to reproductive maturity is very long. Those characteristics mean it is not likely that homo sapiens would survive a sixth mass extinction.

    14 Steps You Can Take

    If you want to support efforts to stop the sixth extinction, there are 14 simple but effective steps you can take:

    1. Let the you support their banning of bee-killing neonicotinoids. The agency is looking for public comments in spring 2019.
    2. Advocate for conservation areas. Existing protected areas have kept extinction rates . Almost 13% of the Earth’s land is protected, but only 2% of the ocean is. Find out and try to protect them. For example, residents of Sydney, Australia, are of that live on the city’s beaches.
    1. Reuse your shopping bags instead of allowing stores to give you non-biodegradable plastic bags. This will save turtles and other wildlife.
    2. Avoid food with palm oil because tiger habitats are being cut down to plant palm plantations. .
    3. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has . It also shows what . Similarly, grow native plants in your yard to support local wildlife.
    4. Get involved with the animal conservation organization of your choice: , , or one of that focus on specific animals.
    1. Refuse furniture made of wood from rainforests or endangered trees.
    2. Recycle your cell phones, because a mineral used in electronic production is mined in gorilla habitat.
    3. Support ecotourism. Only 10% of Madagascar’s original natural vegetation remains intact. As a result, around 90% of lemur species are threatened with extinction. The country is among the world’s poorest. But lift the country out of poverty and save these critically endangered primates.
    4. Switch to a more organic, plant-based diet. The contributes one-fifth of global emissions, creates monocultures, and contributes to the clearing of bio-diverse areas. These crops also contribute to pesticide pollution. The best way to solve that is to eat organic.
    1. Become carbon neutral. The United Nations program allows you to offset all the carbon you've emitted by purchasing credits.
    2. Vote for candidates who promise a solution to global warming. The is pressuring Democrats to adopt a Green New Deal. It outlines steps that will reduce U.S annual greenhouse emissions from 2016 by 16%.
    3. Plant trees or support organizations that do so. The is just one of the many organizations recommended by the . Your donations to plants trees in Madagascar. That gives the people income, rehabilitates the habitat, and save lemurs and other species from extinction.